Influenza a Viruses in Artificial Community Water Ponds: Potential for IAV Surveillance
Zin M. Htway, Hector E. Hernandez

Emerging influenza viruses continue to challenge public health. This research was a baseline study of the proportion of influenza A viruses (IAV) in urban and rural communities in California. The population was artificial recalculating water ponds in the geographic locations of rural and urban Californian communities. Surface water samples were collected from artificial recalculating ponds in California. Positivity for IAV was verified by real time RT-PCR methodology. The proportion of IAV in rural and urban ponds favored the greater burden of IAV in urban ponds over rural ponds. This study validated these water ponds as resource sites for IAV surveillance and monitoring. The social change implications of this study can be recognized at the national and international levels, to the population level, and to the individual level by providing geospatial analysis and spatial-temporal data for IAV surveillance, initiation of bio security measures to protect poultry industries in the United States and Brazil, and may contribute to the current IAV strain library. Contributions to the IAV strain library may be used to develop vaccines against human pandemics.

Full Text: PDF     DOI: 10.15640/jns.v4n1a1